Present Perfect Tense

The present perfect is a present tense. It is used to talk about the situation now of an action that started in the past. It doesn’t talk about the past.

  • I have taken the wrong road.
    (action that began in the past/took the wrong road – situation now/still on the wrong road)
  • I have worked here for many years.
    (action that began in the past/started work here – situation now/still working here)

It can also be used to talk about an action that has only just finished.

  • They have fixed the roof
    (started in the past/fixing the roof – just finished/fixing the roof)

The present perfect tense is formed subject + has/have + past participle.

  • I have worked here for many years.
    (subject/I + have + past participle/worked)
  • He has just dropped his book.
    (subject/he + has + past participle/dropped)

The negative is formed subject + has not/have not (hasn’t/haven’t) + past participle.

  • I haven’t worked here for many years.
    (subject/I + haven’t + past participle/worked)
  • He hasn’t just dropped his book.
    (subject/he + hasn’t + past participle/dropped)

The question is formed question word + has/have + subject + past participle.

  • How have I taken the wrong road?
    (question word/how + have + subject/I + past participle/taken)
  • How has he done that?
    (question word/how + has + subject/he + past participle/done)

For yes/no questions it is formed using have/has + subject + past participle.

  • Have I taken the wrong road?
    (have + subject/I + past participle/taken)
  • Has he done that?
    (has + subject/he + past participle/done)